The Faint Echo of 19th Century American Napoleonic Biography
by Thomas J. Vance (LTC, U.S. Army Reserve, Retired)
Americans shared a number of key historic events with Napoleon Bonaparte during the 19th century: the largest peaceful land transfer in world history with the Louisiana purchase; the War of 1812, considered by some historians to be a part of the Napoleonic Wars; and the impact of Waterloo, with Napoleon’s option of fleeing to America and the actual immigration of Bonaparte family members including Napoleon’s brother Joseph who lived in New Jersey for 19 years. 
While Americans did not admire Napoleon the way they did George Washington, they were captivated by Napoleon’s achievements through talent as opposed to birthright like many other European heads of state. Napoleon was celebrated as a self-made man. According to one recent analysis, the fascination with Napoleon (or “the cult of Napoleon”) in the U.S. was second only to that in France. There were plays produced in America about Napoleon as early as 1820 and by 1859 there were 15 towns named Napoleon or Bonaparte. 
The American publishing business was aware of this fascination for the former Emperor. In addition to publishing American writings on Napoleon, numerous editions of translated foreign memoirs appeared in American editions primarily from Philadelphia and New York publishing houses. 
While there were a number of American writers and historians publishing both articles and books about Napoleon during the 19th century, this article focuses on five American writers whose works of Napoleonic biography stood out during the 19th century. Categorized by their professional training, they consisted of two ministers, a lawyer, a professional historian, and a teacher. 
In addition to describing these authors and their contributions to Napoleonic literature and publishing, this article attempts to show the relevance of these works to Napoleonic historians during the 20th and 21st centuries (an appendix lists those works that cite these early American Napoleonic authors).
J. T. Headley
Joel T. Headley (1813-1897), who wrote more than 30 books of biography, history and travel, was the author of three volumes on Napoleon: the two-volume Napoleon and His Marshals (1846), The Distinguished Marshals of Napoleon (1850), and The Imperial Guard of Napoleon: from Marengo to Waterloo (1851). Of these works, his two-volume work on the marshals was his most popular and the one most likely to be referenced in 20th century works. 
Napoleon and His Marshals, published when Headley was 33, was his fourth work and his first biographical work; the work became a best-seller and continued to be popular for decades. With portions of the book originally published in the American Review, the 647-page work contains a 66-page chapter on Napoleon and separate chapters on each of the 23 marshals. His eight-page preface identifies the objective of the work -- “to clear his character from the aspersions of English historians, and the slanders of his enemies” -- and makes it clear that the book contains no originality “except in the way I have arranged and grouped facts already given to the world.” Regarding his methods, he explains that his research included visits to many of the Napoleonic battlefields and he mentions 20 key sources he drew from (none of whom are American historians). 
A review in The New Englander & Yale Review declared that, “This work is the work of the season,” calling Headley “a man of undoubted genius,” although the reviewer objects to the book’s favorable bias to its subject and suggests he turn his “strong and lively” talents to American biography. 
Headley, a native of New York State, graduated from Union College, New York, and then attended Auburn Theological Seminary, entering the ministry upon graduation. He soon gave up the ministry, and after taking time off to travel and briefly try newspaper work, he turned to what would be a prolific career as an author. Napoleon and His Marshals was the first American work published by Baker and Scribner.
“The critics scoffed at Headley’s verbosity and questioned his facts and opinions,” according to one modern day observer. “But Americans, enamored of Napoleon the man-of-action and ready to forget the rest, bought the book in
unprecedented numbers.” Within 15 years of its publication date, Napoleon and His Marshals was in its 50th edition. While Headley’s books would not qualify today as professional history, for his day “they influenced the public and gave him fame and fortune” and he would be considered “a historian for his time.” 
According to American Authors: 1600-1900, while Headley’s works were popular and “reached an enormous sale,” they were “more on the order of compilations than works of scholarship.”  Thanks to the web site “Napoleonic Literature,” Napoleon and His Marshals remains ‘in print’ with the entirety of the two-volume work available at no cost online. The editor of the site, John Schneider, refers to Headley as belonging to the “apologists” camp of Napoleonic historians 
Of Headley’s three Napoleonic volumes, only the two-volume set on the marshals is evident in a survey of citations: Alexander, Chandler (Marshals) and Macartney.
John S. C. Abbott
John S. C. Abbott (1805-1877) wrote The History of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1855 when he was 50. Historian and clergyman, the Maine native graduated from Bowdoin College class of 1825, which included Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow. His only other book directly on Napoleon was Napoleon at St. Helena, also published in 1855, but some of his other works included volumes on the French Revolution, Josephine, Joseph Bonaparte, and Napoleon III. 
Abbott trained for the ministry after Bowdoin and was ordained as a Congregational minister. At the age of 38, however, he joined his three brothers as an instructor in a family enterprise, Abbott’s Institute, in New York City. Meanwhile, his wife Jane Williams Bourne assisted him in his research. He returned to Maine in 1853 and began work on his biography of Napoleon, which was first serialized in 37 installments in Harper’s Review from 1851 to 1854. 
The History of Napoleon Bonaparte began its many faceted run as a book form in 1855. The 1883 edition in two volumes (totaling 1,277 pages) features numerous illustrations by C. E. Doepler sprinkled throughout the work, maps by Jacob Wells, and footnotes -- with further details and sources -- at the bottom of some pages.
“The history of Napoleon has often been written by his enemies,” declares Abbott in the opening of his preface. “This narrative is from the pen of one who reveres and loves the Emperor.” He describes the plan for the work as a “plain narrative of what Napoleon did, with the explanations which he gave of his conduct, and with the record of such well-authenticated anecdotes and remarkable sayings as illustrate his character.” Regarding this sources, he states that “every incident here recorded, and every remark attributed to Napoleon, are well authenticated.” 
A 20th century biographical sketch says that Abbott “praised Bonaparte so lavishly that the book, though successful, greatly antagonized the critics.”  Meanwhile, the historian George Gordon Andrews comments on Abbott’s lack of objectivity by saying that Abbott “revealed something of the lengths to which the Napoleonic legend might go,” referring to a passage in Abbott’s preface saying that he admired Napoleon because he “abhorred war.” 
Four years after the publication of his Napoleon biography, Abbott traveled to France and became friends with Emperor Louis Napoleon. He returned to the ministry and continued writing his books -- a total of 54 by the end of his 72 years. He has been described as “indefatigable, systematic, a man of high standards and purpose.” American Authors comments that, “Although his work was widely read in its time, it had no lasting literary influence.” 
Abbott’s biography on Napoleon is cited in: Alexander, Chandler (Campaigns and his Dictionary), P. C. Headley, and Korngold. Technically, his book is now again “in print,” re-issued in 2002 as an abridged 112-page book available by an on-demand publisher. Also, excerpts are available online through the Gutenberg Literary Archive. 
John Codman Ropes (1836-1899), an attorney and military historian, is primarily recognized for his Civil War writings, but his works include two books on Napoleon: Napoleon the First: A Sketch, Political and Military
in 1885 (a 347-page volume based on lectures he delivered at the Lowell Institute in Boston) and Campaign of Waterloo
Ropes was born in Russia to American parents living in St. Petersburg. After his family returned to Salem, Mass., he graduated from Harvard College, followed by Harvard Law. In addition to the practice of law and his writing, he also served as editor of the American Law Review (1866-1869) and founded the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts (1876). He was also a member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Harvard Historical Society, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 
“I have not undertaken to write a new history,” Ropes explains in the introduction, “but simply to indicate the lines upon which a new history might be written. The task of rectifying the fundamental notions with which nearly all historians have approached the study of the epoch of Napoleon is the task which I proposed to myself.” The book contains nine appendixes (examining a variety of historical questions), maps, and an index (and four pages of advertisements, including Dorsey Gardner’s Quatre Bras, Ligny & Waterloo). Writing from his Boston home, Ropes says, “It ought to be possible for Americans to arrive at an impartial estimate of the credit and blame which should attach to the chief actors in that famous drama.” 
Both of Ropes’ Napoleonic works are mentioned in Dodge, Gottschalk, and Greer; Fisher cites only his Campaign of Waterloo.
William Milligan Sloane
William Milligan Sloane (1850-1928) is the author of the most complete and most authoritative biography of Napoleon written in America during the nineteenth century: Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. Written while serving as professor of History at Princeton, the book was first published when he was 45 years old as a series in The Century Magazine during 1895 and 1896, followed by a publication in four oversized volumes in 1896 (totaling 1,149 pages). The work was revised and expanded for the 1912 library edition (totaling 1,876 pages), by which time he was serving on the faculty at Columbia University.
Sloane graduated from Columbia College in 1868 and served for four years on the faculty of the Newell Institute in Pittsburg, Penn. He studied philosophy, the classics, and the Semitic languages at University of Berlin and then at University of Leipsic. While living in Berlin he worked as a research assistant for American historian and U. S. envoy to the German Court, George Bancroft. With the title of personal secretary, Sloane assisted with the tenth volume of Bancroft’s History of the United States. Sloane completed his doctorate at the University of Leipsic in 1876. He was a member of several professional societies while studying in Germany and in 1877 he wrote The Poet Labid: His Life, Times, and Fragmentary Writings.
Sloane taught history at Columbia where he earned his L.H.D. in 1887 and earned his LL.D. at Rutgers in 1898. He served as editor of both the Political Science Quarterly and of the American Historical Review and was president of the National (later American) Historical Association and also head of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. While the Life of Napoleon Bonaparte is considered his greatest achievement of authorship, he wrote nine other books of biography, history and government, including a volume on the French Revolution. 
Writing in the preface to the library edition of Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (1910) from New York, Sloane writes, “Judging from the sales, it has been read by many tens if not hundreds of thousands of readers; and it has been extensively noticed in the critical journals of both worlds.” While the collection features a complete bibliography, it does not include footnotes, but he explains that he does list references at the beginning each chapter “for those who desire to extend their reading; experts know their own way.” Regarding footnotes, he writes that while he has had “extensive correspondence with my fellow workers, there has come to me in all these years but a single request for the source of two statements, and one demand for the evidence upon which certain opinions were based.” 
This edition, also four volumes, but of traditional size, featured a three-page section on historical sources, a 46-page bibliography and a cumulative index totaling 172 pages. Sloane notes in his historical sources section -- consisting of unpublished documents, published official papers, and contemporary memoirs -- that since he originally wrote authored this biography that “great numbers of what were then manuscript journals, memoirs, or letters have been printed and published. He notes that proper use has been made of these new sources, and adds, “The author may be pardoned for remarking that few details of importance have been found incorrect, wherever experts agree, and that his many critics have made no demand for the reconstruction of his characterization in its broad outlines, however opposed they may be to his portrayals or discussions.” 
Sloane’s work is complimented in several key references. David G. Chandler refers to Sloane as “the great historian.” Yale University Professor of History Edward Gaylord Bourne, wrote in his 1903 edition of August Fournier’s 1885 Napoleon the First: A Biography that, “The most important general biographies of Napoleon that have appeared in English since Fournier” are Sloane and J. H. Rose, a British author writing in 1902. Albert Guerard wrote in 1924 that the modern reader would be apt to be familiar with Sloane’s work, and in 1956 he wrote that Sloane is “among the best-known” authors. 
Other references citing Sloane are Chandler (Dictionary), Delderfield, Dodge, Greer (noted as a “most valuable” source), Gottschalk, Haythornthwaite, Rose, and Young.
The editor of Napoleonic Literature website, John Schneider (Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, retired), has made a CD of the original 1896 volumes available and calls this collection “an epic achievement in the realm of Napoleonic literature.” Schneider writes that, “Sloane knew his subject well and, in this work, you will discover a wealth of information that is difficult or impossible to find elsewhere.” 
Ida M. Tarbell (1857-1944), author of 25 books, wrote one book on Napoleon: A Short Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (1895) -- a book that saw several editions -- and she edited one volume on Napoleon: Napoleon’s Addresses: Selections from the Proclamations, Speeches and Correspondence of Napoleon Bonaparte (1897).
Tarbell’s biography of Napoleon began as a serial in McClure’s Magazine in 1894. The cover of the first installment boasts at the top of the page, “A Great Pictorial Life of Napoleon,” along with the teaser in the middle of the cover accompanying an illustration of Napoleon, “A New Life with an almost exhaustive series of Napoleon Portraits and over 100 other pictures begins in this number.” 
The work is introduced by Napoleonic art collector Gardiner G. Hubbard who supplied the majority of art. The work was significant primarily because of the collection of illustrations, many of which were published for the first time. The series, appearing in the three-year old magazine, was credited with significantly increasing circulation.
The following year her work appeared as a collection titled McClure’s Complete Life of Napoleon, a 248-page magazine supplement with all 250 illustrations and issued again in 1896 as A Short Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (complete with a Bonaparte family tree and a useful chronology). Although not an authority on the subject of Napoleon, Tarbell conducted her research in Washington, D.C., at the Library of Congress. While she considered her scholarship sketchy, “the public loved the series,” according to a recent literary critique. Tarbell’s writing is described as “fast-paced, accurate, and informative.” 
Tarbell graduated from Allegheny College, Pennsylvania, a small liberal arts school in 1880 with a biology degree, and was the only woman in her freshman class. She began her career as a teacher at Poland Union Seminary in Ohio. After three years she decided to leave teaching for journalism and took a position working for the magazine Chautauguan. Then, at the age of 33, she went to Paris to study historiography at the Sorbonne and used the Bibliotheque Nationale for her research on French Revolutionary activist Madame Marie Jeanne Roland. She supported herself as a freelance writer for American newspapers, which brought her to the attention of McClure’s Magazine. She accepted a job offer from that publication in 1893 and returned to the United States. 
Following her first book, the Napoleon biography, she quickly became a prolific writer, publishing Madame Roland: A Biographical Study and The Early Life of Abraham Lincoln in 1896, the two-volume Life of Abraham Lincoln in 1900 and by 1905, the work she is often most remembered for, the two-volume exposé, History of the Standard Oil Company. Her 1900 study of Lincoln remained a standard work on the former president until 1947, in spite of the refusal by Lincoln’s son, Robert Todd Lincoln, to provide access to the family papers. 
Identified as an historian, journalist and biographer, Tarbell “developed her skills as a biographer, utilizing historical documents to create psychological portraits of her subjects. Her biographies of Napoleon and Lincoln were considered among the most accessible, well-crafted, and thoroughly documented of their time.” 
According to Tarbell biographer Mary E. Tomkins, Tarbell’s central purpose in the Napoleon biography was more historical than biographical, “exploiting the public’s curiousity about Napoleon to teach history…” Tomkin writes that Tarbell’s “skill in simplifying masses of data and her swift narrative style assured the popularity of the biography.” Tomkins writes that in contrast to Sloane’s “leisurely biography that was running concurrently in the Century, hers moved swiftly, often changing focus to feature historical highlights rather than meticulously developing the background of their emergence.” 
In her memoirs, Tarbell – who refers to her life of Napoleon as “a sketch” – concludes that Napoleon’s life was “an amazing record of achievement.” While she admits that when initially asked to write this life she thought the idea was “laughable,” but decided “how could I refuse?” McClure’s started her at $40 a week and she was still receiving royalty checks at the writing of her memoirs in 1939. 
It is interesting to note that Tarbell recorded the favorable responses she received from John Ropes and William Sloane on her Napoleon. According to Tarbell, Ropes “liked the treatment” and invited her to Boston for lunch, at which time she also had the opportunity to view his Napoleon collection. Regarding Sloane, she wrote that, “A bit of consolation for my hasty work came from the last source I would have expected.” When she once complimented Sloane on his Napoleonic scholarship, he replied, “I have often wished that I had had, as you did, the prod of necessity behind me, the obligation to get it out at a fixed time, to put it through, no time to idle, to weigh, only to set down. You got something that way – a living sketch.” 
Of all the 19th century works included in this survey, only Gottschalk cited Tarbell’s Napoleonic biography as a reference.
The advances made in the historical method from the 1840s with Headley and the 1890s with Sloane is evident in Sloane’s work and its reception by 19th century historians. It is interesting to note that the majority of 20th century works citing these five early authors appears to be from the earlier part of the 20th century. Still, with Sloane’s credentials, it is surprising that citations to his work have not been greater.
Early American historiography on Napoleon seems totally ignored in several treatments of the subject, including the “Napoleonic Wars” entry of the Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing and bibliographical essay in Geoffrey Ellis’ work on Napoleon. While Sloane was the only professional historian of the five, even he is not included in the standard collections on noted American historians. 
It appears, that with the possible exception of Sloane (with apologies to the readability of Tarbell), the other authors remain largely relevant primarily for Napoleonic collectors and those amateur or professional historians looking to use older materials to illustrate development of the literature. The advent of electronic sources – both online and CD – has added new access, if not relevance, to information that would otherwise be sought after by Napoleonic collectors.
While these writings may only provide a faint echo from the 19th century, it is a worthy echo all the same.
1. Paul Fregosi, Dreams of Empire: Napoleon and the First World War 1792-1815 (NY: Birch Lane Press Book), 1990, p. 23.
2. R. S. Alexander, Napoleon (NY: Oxford University Press), 2001, pp. 162-164.
3. A survey of American publishers issuing Napoleonic memoirs includes: E. L. Carey and A. Hart of Philadelphia (Caulincourt’s Napoleon and His Times, 1838), Thomas Crowell & Co., of New York (Bourrienne’s four volume Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte, edited by R. W. Phipps, 1885), several titles from D. Appleton & Co., of New York (D’Abrantes ‘Madame Junot’ Memoirs of Napoleon: His Court and Family, 1895, Meneval’s three volume Memoirs Illustrating the History of Napoleon: 1802-1815 edited by his grandson Baron Napoleon Joseph de Meneval,1895, Count de Segur’s An Aide-de-Camp of Napoleon, revised by his grandson Count Louis de Segur,1897, Lady Mary Loyd’s New Letters of Napoleon I: Omitted from the Edition Published Under the Auspices of Napoleon III from the French,1897), Merriam Company (Constant’s three-volume Recollections of The Private Life of Napoleon translated by Walter Clark, 1895), C. M. Saxton, Barker & Co., of New York (Lockhart’s Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, 1860), and Charles Scribner’s Sons of New York (de Bourrienee’s four-volume Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte edited by R. W. Phipps, 1891).
4. A sampling of other writers not included in this study due to the limited scope of their treatment (in chronological order): Ralph Waldo Emerson (18-page chapter “Napoleon: Man of the World” in Representative Men, 1850); an anomomous title of 422 pages from John E. Potter and Company (Napoleon and His Campaigns, n.d., but sometime before 1851); Henry Watson’s 448-page school text (The Campfires of Napoleon, 1854) is cited in Dodge’s sources; Rufus W. Griswold, the editor of a popular poetry anthology that made the best-seller list in 1842, was the anonymous author of this 720 page collective biography (Napoleon and His Marshals of the Empire, Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates,1885, two volumes in one with the binder’s title of Napoleon and His Marshals); the noted travel writer and lecturer John L. Stoddard’s 260-page pictorial biography (Napoleon: From Corsica to St. Helena, Akron, Ohio: Saalfield Publishing, 1900 with 1894 copyright); and Montgomery B. Gibbs’ 514-page book, cited in Dodge’s sources and dedicated to John L. Stoddard. (Military Career of Napoleon the Great, Akron, Ohio: Saalfield Publishing, 1902 with 1895 copyright, with binder’s title of Napoleon’s
5. Headley, J. T., Napoleon and His Marshals (New York: Baker and Scribner), 1847. This version is identified as the 10th edition. At the end of the volume are advertisements for books, including 5 pages of testimonials for this volume including comments from the Detroit Free Press, New York Tribune and the Teacher’s Advocate (Syracuse), un-numbered advertising pages 14-18. His book, The Imperial Guard of Napoleon, (New York: Charles Scribner, 1851) was identified on the binding as The Old Guard of Napoleon. In his introduction to this work, Headley explains that the majority of the material was left over from his research for this two-volume history of Napoleon and His Marshals and that “The present work lays no claim to originality.” This 1851 volume referenced only one source, a French history of the Imperial Guard by Emile Marco de Saint Hiliare. This edition, like the two-volumes on the marshals, is available in its entirety on the Napoleonic Literature web site (http://www.napoleonic-literature.com).
6. Headley, Ibid, Preface, Vol. I, pp. i-viii, with references to pp. iv and viii. Richard B. Morris, editor, Encyclopedia of American History (NY: Harper & Brothers, 1953), mentions that not only was Napoleon and His Marshals a best-seller in 1846, but that it continued to be a best-seller “after their period, including cheap reprints.” p. 566.
7. New Englander & Yale Review (October 1846, Vol. 4, Issue 16), pp. 592-594.
8. Connelly, Owen and Scott, Jesse, “Joel T. Headley,” Dictionary of Literary Biography: American Historians 1607-1865, edited by Clyde N. Wilson, (Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Books/Gale Research Company), 1984, pp. 109-110.
9. Kunitz, Stanley J. and Haycraft, Howard, American Authors: 1600-1900 (New York: H. W. Wilson Co.), 1938, p. 353.
10. Napoleonic Literature (http://www.napoleonic-literature.com/), posted in October 1998, using the 1850 edition by New York based Hurst & Company.
11. Abbot, John S. C., The History of Napoleon Bonaparte (New York: Harper & Brothers), 1883.
12. Kunitz, p. 2.
13. Abbott, iii-iv.
14. Kunitz, p. 2.
15. Andrews, George Gordon, Napoleon in Review (New York: Alfred A. Knopf), 1939, p. 306.
16. Kunitz, p. 3.
17. Published as an on-demand book in September 2002, by Indypublish.com in both paper and hard cover. There are also excerpts available online from the Harper’s Magazine serialization of his biography from Project Gutenberg E-Text released in February 2003, by the Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation produced by Brett Fishburne at http://wwwonlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num 3775.
18. Kunitz, p. 661.
19. Ropes, John Codman, The First Napoleon: A Sketch, Political & Military (Boston: Houghton Mifflin), 1885, pp. iii and vi.
21. Sloane, William Milligan, Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (New York: Century Company), 1912 (copyright 1896, Library Edition, four volumes, revised and enlarged with portraits), Vol. 1, p. vi.
22. Ibid., Vol. 4, p. 305.
23. See Appendix A: Chandler (Campaigns), p. 9; Bourne, p. 747; and Guerard (Napoleon), p. 195; and Guerard (Reflections), p. 178.
24. John Schneider, introduction to the CD edition of Sloane’s work: http://www.napoleonic-literature.com.
25. Tarbell, Ida M., A Short Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (New York: S. S. McClure), 1896. The inaugural issue of the series in McClure’s was volume 3, number 6, November 1894, individual issue cost being 15 cents.
26. Tompkins, Mary E. “Ida M. Tarbell,” American Historians: 1866-1912 in the series Dictionary of Literary Biography (Detroit: Gale Research), 1986, p. 297.
28. Tompkins, American Historians, p. 298-299.
29. “Ida Tarbell,” Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Vol. 40 (Detroit: Gale Research), 1991, p. 421.
30. Tomkins, Mary E., Ida M. Tarbell (New York: Twayne Publishers), 1974, pp. 39, 40 and 42. Her entire chapter on “The Uses of Biography: Popular History” is very useful.
31. Tarbell, Ida M., All in the Day’s Work: An Autobiography (New York: Macmillan), 1939, pp. 148, 150, 153.
32. Tarbell, Ibid., p. 152.
33. Boyd, Kelly, editor, “Napoleonic Wars,” Encyclopedia of Historians & Historical Writing, Vol. 2 (London: Fitzroy Dearborn), 1999, p. 852-854; Ellis, Geoffrey, Napoleon (London: Longman), 1997, pp. 238-251; Boia, Lucian, Great Historians of the Modern Age: An International Dictionary (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood), 1991 and Hughes-Warrington, Marnie, Fifty Key Thinkers on History (London: Routledge), 2000.
Appendix: 20th Century Works Citing Featured Authors
Alexander, R. S., Napoleon (New York: Oxford), 2001.
Andrews, George Gordon, Napoleon in Review (New York: Alfred A. Knopf), 1939.
Bourne, Edward Gaylord (editor), Napoleon the First: A Biography by August Fournier, translated by Margaret Bacon Corwin and Arthur Dart Bissell (New York: Henry Holt and Company), 1903.
Chandler, David G., Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.), 1979.
------ The Campaigns of Napoleon (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company), 1966.
------ (Editor-in-Chief). Napoleon’s Marshals (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company), 1987.
Delderfield, R. F., Imperial Sunset: The Fall of Napoleon, 1813-14 (Philadelphia: Chilton Book Company), 1968.
Dodge, Theodore Ayrault, Napoleon, four volumes (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), 1935.
Fisher, Herbert, Napoleon (New York: Henry Holt and Company), 1924.
Geer, Walter, Napoleon the First: An Intimate Biography (New York: Brentanos), 1921.
Gottschalk, Louis R., The Era of the French Revolution, 1715-1815 (Boston: H Houghton Mifflin), 1929.
Guerard, Albert, Reflections on the Napoleonic Legend (New York: Charles Scribner’s), 1924.
------- Napoleon I: A Great Life in Brief (New York: Alfred A. Knopf), 1956.
Headley, P. C., The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte (New York: A.L. Burt Co.), 1903.
Markham, J., David in Napoleon: The Final Verdict, multiple authors with an introduction by Philip J. Haythornthwaite (London: Arms and Armour), 1996.
Macartney, Clarence Edward and Dorrance, Gordon, The Bonapartes in America (Philadelphia: Dorrance and Company), 1939.
Rose, J. Holland, “Napoleon: His Aims and Achievements,” in Universal World History edited by J. A. Hammerton (New York: Wise & Co.), 1937.
Tom Vance, a retired lieutenant colonel from the U.S. Army Reserve, manages public affairs for Portage (Michigan) Public Schools and is working part-time on a masters in U.S. History from Western Michigan University.